Frequently Asked Questions

[acc title=”DO I NEED TO PROTECT MY SHORELINE FROM EROSION?”] The answer to this question depends on your specific site conditions and should involve a site assessment by a shoreline specialist. If your home is not directly at risk, then it is very likely that the answer will be “no” – there will be little reason to invest in expensive shoreline interventions such as a bulkhead. In fact, it will be difficult to get new shoreline armor permitted if it does not directly protect a primary structure such as a home. Ideally, your shoreline exhibits the typical slow, natural erosion process that supports coastal habitat and functions in Puget Sound. Whatever the outcome of your shoreline assessment, you will want to make certain that you are not contributing to (or accelerating) erosion problems inadvertently. Your property management decisions can cause unintended problems with drainage or slope instability. Understanding how best to manage water and vegetation on your shoreline will limit erosion on your waterfront. [/acc] [acc title=”WHAT SHOULD I DO WITH ALL THE WATER DRAINING DOWN MY SLOPE?”]

Water often has a huge impact on slope stability. You want to be certain that your shoreline drainage strategy or irrigation systems are not leaking or contributing to bank instability or erosion. Drainage management above shoreline slopes can be complex, so we typically recommend using professional guidance to assess and develop a water management strategy that is appropriate for your property.

Some things to keep in mind: if you have any pipe systems (tight lines, subsurface drains, French or curtain drains, etc.), know exactly where they are. Monitor them several times each year for leaks or breaks, so you don’t soak extra water into a slope or bluff unintentionally. Remember that our “natural drainage management systems” are incredibly valuable: our native vegetation provides an incredible service with regard to water management. Layers of trees, shrubs and groundcovers will intercept, slow down, take up, and evapotranspire rainfall on your property, thus decreasing the amount of runoff that you need to manage. In contrast, large paved or roof areas and big lawns actually create extra water that you will have to manage in order to avoid contributing to erosion or even slope instability.

The webpage and downloadable publication below provide an excellent overview and additional guidance:

Web: Managing Drainage on Coastal Bluffs

Publication: Ecology Publication #95-107: Surface Water and Groundwater on Coastal Bluffs: A Guide for Puget Sound Property Owners.

[/acc] [acc title=”HOW SHOULD I MANAGE TREES FOR VIEWS (AND PLANTS IN GENERAL) ON MY SHORELINE?”] As a basic rule, you benefit the most by keeping as much native vegetation (trees, shrubs and groundcovers) as possible on your waterfront (and on your property as a whole). Layers of vegetation provide significant water management and slope stabilization services. Instead of clearing your property and putting in a large lawn to the water’s edge, limit the extent of clearing to the area that you will actually use. Hire tree care professionals such as certified arborists to prune your trees for views, and plant additional native trees and shrubs in the unused areas of your property to improve water management and slope stability around you home.

Try the International Society of Arborists, Pacific Northwest Chapter, for certified tree care professionals.

Try the Washington Native Plant Society for year round local sources for Pacific Northwest native plants.


Yes, there are bulkhead alternatives and they are being used more and more often around Puget Sound. When deciding how you will respond to erosion on your waterfront, you will want answers to the following questions…

  • First, are you certain that you truly need to do something?
  • Is erosion posing a direct risk to your home, or is it part of the natural process of coastal change and something you can live with?
  • Why is erosion happening? Is it natural or is it caused by vegetation and drainage management practices?
  • Is it possible to change upland management before modifying your shoreline? This could be a significantly less expensive and less complex process – as well as better for your property and for the overall health of the Puget Sound.

Before you make a decision, seek unbiased guidance from a shoreline professional – not just a bulkhead installer. When possible, consult several coastal professionals before you decide how to respond to erosion on the waterfront.

If an intervention is necessary to protect a critical structure such as your home, you will also want to find out if bulkhead alternatives are feasible for your specific property. Site conditions will determine the options available for your unique section of the marine shoreline. Characteristics such as bluff conditions, bank height, exposure to open water and wind energy, the surrounding shoreline context, upland conditions, and many other factors determine which options make sense for stabilizing a shoreline. Again, seek unbiased professional guidance before making a decision. Learn about the alternatives, their appropriateness for your site, and the timeline involved. Taking time to learn all you can may save you thousands of dollars in the long run.


If your shoreline armor can’t be safely removed, you can still contribute to a healthy Puget Sound.

  • Start with shoreline vegetation: wherever possible, plant natives species that will overhang the shoreline armor and drop food such as insects into the water below. You can select lower-growing species for important view areas, and larger shrubs or trees for the edges. Remember that birds, insects, and many mammals share the shorelines with us – and with all the sea creatures.
  • Be sure to properly maintain your septic system.
  • Avoid the use of fertilizers and chemicals along Puget Sound’s sensitive shorelines. Landscaping with native plants eliminates the need for fertilizers.


Waterfront impacts vary depending on the specific context of each property, but the cumulative impact of shoreline armor has led to declines in quality habitat for many Puget Sound species. The type and number of impacts depend on the form of armor involved and the nature of the property. Potential (and commonly observed) impacts include:


  • Loss of upper beach and backshore (beach area above MHHW), due to increased beach erosion
  • Reduction of the area of dry beach at high tide due to increased beach erosion
  • Reduction of the amount of accumulated large wood (drift wood and logs) and beach wrack (shells, seaweed, etc. left on the beach at the high tide line)
  • Reduction of available forage fish spawning habitat (herring, sand lance…)
  • Reduction of area available for recreation due to increased beach erosion
  • Modification or removal of connections between the water and land, which makes access difficult for people and for wildlife
  • Reduction of the movement of materials and organics between aquatic and terrestrial systems
  • Reduction of the quality of riparian (shoreline vegetation) functions, such as food delivery, wood recruitment, and shelter
  • Altered drainage patterns to the beach
  • Passive erosion
  • Limitation of the natural retreat of the shoreline, which narrows the remaining available beach
  • Altered sediment delivery and transport, which affects the availability of materials that build Puget Sound beaches
  • Reduction of the delivery of sediment into the system and reduction the overall amount of available sediment moving along the shoreline in the local “drift cell” or littoral cell
  • Changed sediment movement along the shoreline, which causes localized erosion down-drift
  • Altered wave action, which can shift the direction or impact of wave energy to neighboring sites
  • Increased erosion and scour on the beach through wave reflection, which can undermine the stability of shoreline armor over time…


Learn more: Washington State Department of Ecology website